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The Preparation of International Class Weightlifters

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The Preparation of International Class Weightlifters

Ivan Abadjiev


The continuously increasing athletic achievements require quicker and quicker

rates of development of the necessary motor qualities. These requirements,

for their part, will stimulate a constant perfecting of the means and methods

of preparation.

Now, as before, the average top competitive lifetime in the sport of

weightlifting is 15 years. The peaks are reached after 5-6 years, and the

beginning of the waning is after the 9th-10th year. The Soviet competitor, V

Stogov and his first rival, Charles Vinci, in the above mentioned time frame,

in the age interval 20-30 years, achieved the following results in both

classical movements: 105, 135 kg, and our competitor, Naim Suleimanov in 5

years, at 15-years of age, has already achieved 125 and 160 kg. It is

evident that the latter has developed very efficiently and is developing

faster than most other lifters.

Basic Principles underlying Bulgarian Weightlifting Methods

In his research, the Soviet scientist F.Mirson found out that the functions

of the living cell interact with its genetical apparatus to provoke the

relevant structural changes necessary for the enhancing greater functional

capabilities. Already, in his time, I.P. Pavlov had discovered that after

the breakdown of ‘overnormal’ albumin quantities in the human body an

intensive synthesis of new albumins is provoked in additional quantities, as

a consequence of which tissue mass and overall bodymass is increased.

A Soviet team of scientists succeeded in extracting a special kind of

metabolite from the muscles of animals suffering from starvation and where in

their bodies a significant protein disintegration was taking place. This

active metabolite was extracted, processed into drug form, injected in

animals, and found to improve the assimilation and to activate the synthesis

of simple and compound proteins. The end result after application of these

active metabolites is an increase in the muscle mass and weight of the

stimulated animals. Such metabolites are extracted also from animals after

exhausting physical activity.

The training process of the Bulgarian weightlifters is in conformity with the

above mentioned physiological regularities. Through increasing the training

loading the cell functions in the body are also increased and at the same

time the quantity of disintegrated proteins is also increased. In this way,

the continuously disintegrating loadings in the cycles, periods, and stages

of preparation represent a stimulus for the changes in the bodies of the

training weightlifters, which are related to their force possibilities.

The structural changes in the body and the increase of the muscle mass are

some of the agents for raising the force possibilities.

The other factor on which force and efficiency depend is long known by the

specialists, but for some reason it wasn't used adequately by many athletic


Intramuscular Coordination

This problem is very well explained by Dr Zatsiorsky. Intramuscular

coordination is a process of coordinative action of the synergist and

antagonist muscles. When the synergists (working muscles) are contracting,

their antagonists must be optimally relaxed. Intramuscular coordination is

typical of people who have performed repeatedly physical movements of a

certain form, degree, character, and effort. The more repetitions of certain

motive actions, the better the intramuscular coordination of the muscles and

fibres participating in the motor action.

The lower the qualification of the athlete, the smaller number of repetitions

of the characteristic for the competitive sport movements he has done.

Intramuscular coordination is connected with economizing of the energy

demands during an action in return for non-counteraction by the antagonist

muscle. In this way intramuscular coordination is connected with the working

capacity. The better the intramuscular coordination, the higher the working

capacity. This could explain the fact that 15-year old Naim Suleymanov,

weighing 56 kg, can lift 160 kg, while some 25-30 year old lifters who are

weighing 120-130 kg can only lift 100 kg. In this case the weightlifters'

muscle mass is much bigger, but their intramuscular coordination is different

from that of Suleymanov. That is why they perform the movements heavily with

the bar, making great energy demands, but with low efficiency.

Bearing in mind the importance of the positive changes in the body as a

result of raising its function and the role of intramuscular coordination for

the increase in its efficiency, we have devised training programmes in

accordance with the above mentioned requirements for the Bulgarian



9.00 - 9.30 Front squat

9.30 - 10.00 Break

10.00 - 11.00 Snatch

11.00 - 11.30 Break

11.30 - 12.30 Jerk

12.30 - 13.00 Front squat

16.30 - 17.30 Jerk

17.30 - 18.00 Break

18.00 - 19.00 Snatch

19.00 - 19.30 Front squat

19.30 - 20.00 Snatch pulls each 5 times repetitions and jerk pulls 5 x 3


9.00 - 9.30 Back squat

9.30 - 10.00 Break

10.00 -10.45 Power snatch

10.45 - 11.45 Break

11.45 - 12.00 Power jerk

12.00 - 12.30 Front squat

12.30 - 13.00 Both pulls /5 x 3 each/



What are the characteristics of these training programmes?

Well, they assure a great volume of work, by which is assured powerful

functioning of the working organs, as well as the execution of a large total

number of repetitions.

When powerful functioning and high number of repetitions are discussed, we

must remark that these big quantities are focused largely on the perfecting

of sport technique. The more repetitions, the more corrections are learned,

and the greater the smoothing of the movements. Technique is connected with

corrections of the movement's form and with intramuscular coordination. That

is why the large volume achieved by the Bulgarian lifters also facilitates

their technical perfection. Great athletic skill is reached not only through

applying great loads and performing big numbers of repetitions. During a

competition, together with warming up, from 3 to 7 tons are lifted by the

different categories. During the continuous training sessions over 20 tons

are lifted in one day.

So, from the above, it becomes clear that the changes in the body depend only

on the level of functioning and therefore during the training sessions, where

great tonnage is reached, more significant physiological changements should

be expected. Practically, this is not obtained. The physiological changes are

greater after competitions, especially when they are responsible for the

lifting of 3 - 7 tons. After competition the athletes are more exhausted,

with more manifested psychopathy, with diminished working capacity.

These facts show that during a competition other factors are also acting,

which are related to the athletic competitive abilities. In our opinion, that

is the factor which appears in putting the body under rather difficult

extreme conditions, called in our times the stress factor. The stress factor

is connected with emotional excitement, agitation or fear, anger,

aggressiveness. etc. It is known that in the body of an animal or a human

being put into an unusual ambience of extreme conditions a series of

physiological reactions takes place, which represent a direction to

conforming to these conditions. In those reactions the important role is

played by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), with Cannon and Ortelli

being the first who studied and investigated the role of the SNS and the

reactions of individuals exposed to stressful conditions in the laboratory.

According to the Bulgarian scientist, Prof. Sheytanov, the SNS acts directly

through the substance noradrenaline and through stimulating the adrenaline

secretion from the suprarenal gland. He was studying the latter as a

homologue of the postganglion neuron of the CNS and, therefore, in such cases

we can speak about excitation of the adrenal or sympathic system. According

to him, the normal level of adrenaline in blood is approximately 0.5

nanograms per ml. In the conditions of high stress this quantity may increase

by up to 500 ml, i.e. to increase up to 50 times. By means of hard physical

work and other stressing agents, not only cathecholamines are secreted, but

also a series of other biologically active substances. These biologically

active substances, including cathecholamines and hormones, as we said before,

participate in the adaptation of the body to the demanding conditions.

They take part in different metabolites of tissue building and power

providing. E.A.Gromov. et al., and many other scientists have found out in

their research that, during a competition, the athlete's body produces bigger

quantities of biologically active substances. This is explained by the fact

that the small volume loads connected with great efforts, accompanied by high

arousal, cause more significant physiological changes in the body of the

athletes than continuous, large volume loads which involve little effort or

psychological strain. Based on these circumstances, we identify the

competitive element in training as the main factor by which the

weightlifters' bodies will be exposed to unusually stressful conditions. We

are applying the competitive element in the training process by means of a

good arrangement of the training process and by means of the assignments of

the training plans.

Rivalry is the main power in the competitive behaviour of weightlifters

training. That is why we are directing our main efforts towards forming the

team with at least two competitors in every category. It is no wonder why the

USSR's weightlifters are developing so fast. This is occurring because very

often 5 to 6 athletes of the highest world level are competing on the

training and competition platform. The World Federation was absolutely

correct to organize a World Cup Tournament which is carried out in different

stages of the year.

The arranging of regional tournaments, national, local tournaments,

individual, and other kinds of competition events undoubtedly put the bodies

of the competitors under difficult, extreme conditions, where the stress

training factor is acting. A while ago a series of competitions was avoided

in order to avoid disturbing the preparation rhythm. Continuous and

significant restorative periods were carried out before every competition.

This led to a diminishing of the total loading quantity and delayed the

development of athletic achievements, which is one reason why massage and

other restorative means need to be used skillfully. The new principles in

preparation are connected with participation in various important

competitions without the use of restoration. Further, we included in the

training activity the conscious element, where every 15 days we organized

control training sessions under competition conditions and surroundings,

without referees and audiences.

From practice and the scientific approach it is proved that adaptive

reactions are stronger when the physical effort is exerted under conditions

of excitement or high arousal. Under conditions of physical strain, the

metabolism in the working organs of athletes is significantly different.

From the above, it becomes clear that a new basic element in the training

process represents the motivational readiness. Prof. F.Ghenov has drawn up

the problems of the motivational readiness. It is very important in what

psychological strain the athletes will enter the next training session with a

positive or a negative mood, with pessimism or optimism, with willingness to

realize the planned objectives, with fear or faith in future success. In our

country more and more preliminary undertakings are performed connected with

improving the motivating readiness. Much was written and spoken about this

problem and I dare to express here my own opinion towards it. There are

moments in which the athlete's mood is based on strong factors of the daily

routine. The mood is controlled to a big degree by fatigue. During long time

periods the competitors are training under conditions of medium or strong

fatigue. Under such and other similar conditions without the intervention of

another strong contrary factor any creative motivating readiness could not be

created. Lately, motivating through hypnosis is spoken about, but this is a

very difficult and insecure method to apply. More effective and easy to

access as methods and means for positive psychological influence are some

harmless, allowed medicines.

Medicines in the Preparation of High Level Athletes.

With the increase of training loads, with the raising of the stress moments

in the training process, by control of the psychological conditions before,

during, after training and competition more and more pharmacological means

are used.

Before and during training sessions many drugs and supplements for increasing

the working capacity, the functions of the organs and systems of the acting

athletes achieve their anabolic effect. By means of these substances,

increasing the functions of the acting organs they cause an extraordinary

decomposing of albumins in the cells of these organs and through the

retroaction of their genetical apparatus they cause synthesis of elevated

quantities of new albumins. The effect investigated by F.Mirson is obtained,

on the basis of which the muscle mass increases and this is in relation to

the increasing of force abilities. The means for increasing the working

ability are many-sided and they stimulate the CNS. They act through improving

the mediator mechanisms.

The so called adaptogens are used, which improve the conforming possibilities

of the body to the extreme conditions like heavy trainings and competitive

situa- tions. Restoring antecedents of a series of necessary substracts,

factors and cofactors for improvement of the ferment and enzyme systems,

vitamins, etc., antioxidants, removing the products of fatigue. Cardiotonics

and cardiorelaxants, economizing the oxygen consumption.

Soporifics, sedatives, controlling the emotional processes. Hormones. 1

emphasize again that many of the quoted medicines are forbidden. Here we are

discussing only the allowed ones.

Dealing with drugs is a very complicated and important process. Here

competent medical persons must be attracted. This is because this kind of

effect can be negative if wrongly applied and dosaged and can even be a risk

for the athletes's health.

Here some of the problems were exposed, namely how to optimize the

coaching-training process, where some factors in the basis of modern methods

for preparation of high level competitors were disclosed.

In conclusion, it could be stated that the training process will continue to

develop in the direction of enabling athletes to increase the stress factor

in a qualitative as well as in a quantitative sense. The quick and high-grade

restoration of the body of the high class athletes under extreme training

conditions for enabling the athlete to meet timeously the high demands of

impending training, as well as coaching, psychological, physical,

pharmacological and other means will be sought in the future.

Tænkte nogle ville kunne bruge det :bigsmile:

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Sgu spændende læsning.. Og viser igen noget om hvor avanceret vægtløftnings"processen" er blevet frem til idag.

Vægtløftning er nærmest styrkesporternes pendant til Formel 1 racing. Det "fineste" og det klart mest avancerede! Hvilket nok også er hvorfor at man aldrig ser almindelige dødelige med et hverdagsjob komme og gøre sig gældende i toppen, ligesom man kan opleve ved styrkeløft og mange andre sporter.. :smile:

Edited by Francis

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hader, når iøvrigt kompetente coaches fucker sig selv op ved at lire techno snak af, som de ikke har styr på.

Abadiev skulle være fuldstændigt fucked up skalle... Crazy med uge tonnager over 100 tons i VL regi. Det er SATME mange sæt.

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hader, når iøvrigt kompetente coaches fucker sig selv op ved at lire techno snak af, som de ikke har styr på.

Abadiev skulle være fuldstændigt fucked up skalle... Crazy med uge tonnager over 100 tons i VL regi. Det er SATME mange sæt.

Kan du ikke lige elaborere så meningmand kan være med?


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Jeg synes ikke rigtig at man kan sammenligne Süleymanoglu med nogen som helst. Han er en total freak... bare ikke normal.

Han er ikke engang 150 cm høj og løfter 3-4 gange sin kropsvægt i VL-øvelser.

I øvrigt fatter jeg simpelthen minus af de østeuropæiske styrke/vægtløftningsprogrammer. Man får indtrykket af at man skal tage et eller andet for at kunne klare workloadet. :crazy:

Edited by Reggiano

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Siden så mange vægtløftere har knæbind på, tænkte jeg om det er fordi de er skadede el. bare for at undgå skader? DYrker selv en smule vægtløftning og tænkte om jeg skulle anskaffe man knæbind, for man undgår muligvis skader + man må vel få lidt fordele i hugvend og front squat, el. er jeg helt gal på den??

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